Protein Folding Molecular Structures

All of chemistry today rests on the idea that two opposite charges attract, and similar charges repel. Let’s call that idea “opposites attract” for simplicity. But is this the only way complex structures are created in the real world?

We can think of several alternative mechanisms by which complex structures arise if we consider organizations, ecosystems, and societies. For example, we know that “complements attract” to form organizations and teams. Likewise, “similarity attracts” as people with similar goals come together for a common purpose. Then, “neutrality attracts” as we are drawn toward societies where there is equality, justice, meritoriousness. Then “individuality attracts” because there are certain qualities like knowledge, beauty, wealth, power, fame, and detachment that are inherently attractive (the absence of these properties is unattractive).

Vedic philosophy describes attractions in all these ways. But all these descriptions are based on types or qualities, which are organized into a hierarchy.

  • At the highest level, a person becomes inherently attractive by the acquisition of qualities like knowledge and beauty, and by that attraction, new relationships with other individuals are formed. This is the principle of individuality attracts.
  • Then, at a slightly lower level, qualities like justice, morality, equality, and freedom make a society attractive, and that brings people within the society, to practice and propagate these qualities. This is the principle of neutrality attracts.
  • Then, at an even lower level, the similarity of goals—within the broader individual pursuits, which are also free—brings people together to form organizations and teams. This is the principle of similarity attracts that creates groups.
  • Then, at an even lower level, the individuals in a group taken on complementary roles or functions based on their strengths and weaknesses. This is the principle of complementarity that leads to the formation of organizational structures.
  • Then, at the lowest level, there are pairwise attractions between genders, although they create a structure when there are also complementary roles, similar goals, sufficient freedom, and each individual has inherently respectable qualities.

Modern science believes that all order arises from pairwise attractions, but we know that it becomes inadequate as the complexity increases; protein folding structures are just one example of such complexity. How can such complexity be understood by using other methods, which are organized hierarchically?